Brooklyn Law School: Overview

Founded four years after the consolidation of Brooklyn into New York City, Brooklyn Law School today operates at the intersection of Brooklyn Heights, the Brooklyn Civic Center, and Downtown Brooklyn. This location puts it within blocks of some of the nation’s busiest federal and state courts, government agencies, and law firms. The Law School is located within the Brooklyn Tech Triangle, the City’s largest cluster of technology activity outside of Manhattan, which comprises more than 500 innovation companies and startups. One subway station from Manhattan’s Financial District, the Brooklyn Law School campus is at the heart of a self-sufficient legal, cultural, social, and visually stunning Borough that draws visitors from around the world to its distinct neighborhoods and tree-lined streets. For more information about Brooklyn Law School’s environs, please visit:

Brooklyn Law School’s mission is to provide its students with the knowledge, skills, and ethical values needed for a successful legal career. In furtherance of its mission, the Law School has built a community of outstanding legal scholars, students, and alumni. One of the Law School’s greatest strengths is the composition, diversity, and achievements of its faculty, who are gifted teachers in the classroom and renowned scholars and policy shapers in the larger community. Brooklyn Law School is home to a dynamic group of 69 full-time professors, 24 of whom have been elected to the American Law Institute. A 2021 study (by Sisk et al.) ranked Brooklyn Law School 33rd among all U. S. law schools for scholarly impact. Faculty members are also leaders in clinical and experiential education and legal writing. The Law School’s location enables it to draw from a deep pool of distinguished practitioners, judges, and government officials who serve as members of the adjunct faculty.

Over 100 staff members and administrators work with and support Brooklyn Law School’s faculty and students. They are integral not only to the administration, maintenance, and operation of the Law School, but also to its educational mission.

The Brooklyn Law School curriculum combines traditional course offerings and teaching methodologies with innovative professional skills training courses. Its nationally renowned clinical program, one of the first of its kind, is today one of the country’s most diverse and comprehensive professional skills programs. A new Gateway curriculum builds on the Law School’s acclaimed legal writing program by introducing students to a wider range of legal writing skills than traditional legal writing courses do, and by helping students build a portfolio of high-quality written work that dovetails with their individual academic and professional interests. Students can choose from a variety of flexible JD options. Brooklyn Law School also offers an LL.M for lawyers trained outside the U.S., as well as several joint-degree programs, with several new master’s programs awaiting regulatory approval.

Brooklyn Law School endeavors to attract a richly diverse population of highly qualified students. From the time of its founding, when the doors of many law schools were closed to women, people of color, and members of religious and ethnic minorities, Brooklyn Law School enrolled qualified students from all backgrounds. It has thus served as an important gateway to professional, economic, and civic success.

The Law School takes pride in the diversity of its academic community. For the entering class of 2026, the Law School received 3,992 applications and enrolled 391 first-year students. The median LSAT score of the entering class was 160, with a median GPA of 3.54. Thirty-seven percent of the entering students are persons of color; 60 percent are women. First-year students hail from 32 states and 12 other countries. They earned their undergraduate degrees from 166 colleges and universities. During the past year, 89.2 percent of Brooklyn Law School students received some form of institutional financial aid.

Brooklyn Law School is a national law school that is a pipeline to successful careers in New York City. For four consecutive years, it has appeared in The National Law Journal ranking of the highest percentage of JD graduates hired as first-year associates at the nation’s 100 largest law firms, and the percentage of associates promoted to partners. Brooklyn Law School is the fourth-ranked law school for the number of alumni recognized on the New York Metro area Super Lawyers list. Brooklyn Law School has an extensive network of more than 24,000 alumni residing and working in 49 U.S. States, the District of Columbia, 4 U.S. territories, and 50 other countries. They include the partners in some of the world’s most distinguished law firms as well as government officials, business leaders, NGO executives and staffers, and public interest lawyers. Its graduates also figure prominently in the leadership of New York City government agencies and not-for-profit organizations.

The Role of Dean and President

The Dean and President is Brooklyn Law School’s highest-ranking officer and its internal and external face. A tenured member of the Brooklyn Law School faculty, the Dean and President is selected by the Board of Trustees following a search process led by the Board and the faculty with input from all constituencies. The duties of the Dean and President include overseeing Law School operations, communicating among the Board of Trustees, faculty, students, and alumni, and making day-to-day decisions that impact the Law School’s direction, identity, and financial health. Because Brooklyn Law School is a freestanding law school, its Dean and President occupies a rare role within the legal academy: as an empowered leader of institutional strategy, reporting to an engaged and supportive Board of Trustees rather than implementing directives from a university academic affairs bureaucracy in an economy of competing academic units.

Under a newly reorganized administrative structure, the Dean and President will select an Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer who will be appointed by the Board of Trustees and have responsibility for administrative, financial, and operational aspects of the Law School and oversight of all outsourced functions (including information technology, security, janitorial services, and dining).

The Dean and President has the following direct reports: the Vice Dean; the Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer; the General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer; the Dean of Students; the Dean of Admissions; the Dean of Career Development; and the Chief Advancement Officer.

The Faculty

Brooklyn Law School is home to a notably collegial and dynamic group of 69 full-time professors and an impressive cadre of adjunct faculty members. Full-time professors are leading authorities in a broad range of fields with active scholarly and public profiles. Recently published and forthcoming books by Brooklyn Law School faculty authors address subjects as diverse as social enterprise law, animus in constitutional law, social movements and criminal law reform, constitutional change, introverted lawyers, private law theory, white collar crime, democracy and regulation, and the history of intellectual property. The faculty’s 24 elected members of the American Law Institute include reporters and associate reporters on Restatements of the Law of products liability, suretyship and guaranty, property, and compliance. Faculty members have recently published in the main law reviews of Harvard, Yale, Columbia, NYU, University of Pennsylvania, UC Berkeley, Michigan, Virginia, Northwestern, Georgetown, Texas, UCLA, Vanderbilt, and Notre Dame, among many others. Faculty members are also active in the media, providing thought-provoking commentary and critical analyses on leading issues of the day. They have been cited by courts, including the U. S. Supreme Court, and have testified as experts before state legislatures and the U.S. Congress.

Brooklyn Law School’s faculty culture is supportive while also being intellectually rigorous, with numerous formal and informal opportunities for scholarly interchange. Professors have multiple opportunities to present their work in an engaging, sympathetic environment. The wide range of symposia and panel discussions hosted by the school fosters intellectual engagement among students and scholars alike. Faculty members also benefit from the Law School’s New York City location, which provides nearly endless resources and opportunities for scholarly inquiry.

For more than a century, Brooklyn Law School has been widely recognized as a great teaching institution. This reputation is rooted, in part, in a tradition of faculty members who spend time with their students and make a point of always being available and accessible. Faculty members are significantly involved with student organizations, participate in programs, judge moot court teams, and spend time working with and mentoring students to foster their professional growth. They are also recognized teachers in the classroom and are often invited to share their expertise as teachers and scholars by other leading institutions.

The Law School’s location in an urban hub of tech, commerce, finance, real estate, and entertainment, along with its proximity to major federal and state courts, enables the school to draw on an extremely talented group of adjunct professors who teach from their real-world experience. These experts help make the law come alive when teaching specialized courses such as trial advocacy, arbitration, business crimes and corporate litigation, entertainment law, fashion law, and real estate finance. The expertise of adjunct faculty members is vast, and they serve as valuable resources for the full-time faculty.

Governance and Institutional Support

The Dean and President and the Brooklyn Law School faculty have the primary responsibility and authority for planning, implementing, and administering the program of legal education of the Law School, including curriculum, methods of instruction and evaluation, admissions policies and procedures, and academic standards. With the faculty, the Dean and President recommends the selection, retention, promotion, and tenure of faculty members and plays a significant role in determining educational policy.

Brooklyn Law School is governed by a 21-member Board of Trustees, including two Recent Graduate Trustees (who serve two-year terms and often later return as regular Board members). Seven of the current Trustees have joined the Board over the past 13 months. Board Chair Francis J. (Frank) Aquila is the Senior M&A Partner at Sullivan & Cromwell and a member of that firm’s management committee. The American Lawyer named him a “Dealmaker of the Year” in 2009 and 2022.

The Brooklyn Law School Alumni Association assists the Law School’s graduates by sponsoring lectures, forums, and other educational events to further their professional formation. The Alumni Association promotes the employment of Brooklyn Law School students and alumni and fosters comradery among graduates of the Law School through social events and philanthropy. It encourages financial support of the Law School and sponsors social and professional gatherings to aid young graduates in developing a feeling of belonging in the legal profession.

The Women’s Leadership Network, established in 2017, creates meaningful opportunities that connect and empower Brooklyn Law School alumnae through mentorship, networking, programming, and philanthropy. The Network also seeks to create an inclusive community that strengthens the voices and leadership of women in the legal profession and to raise the awareness of issues facing women and society. The Women’s Leadership Circle guides the Women’s Leadership Network. The Circle is a dynamic group of alumnae from a wide range of backgrounds and careers in private practice, government, business, and industry who commit to a gift of $5,000 or more to Network- sponsored scholarships.

Leadership and Senior Administration

Brooklyn Law School has had a history of long-serving deans and/or presidents, notably Jerome Prince (1945 – 1971), David G. Trager (1983 – 1993), and Joan G. Wexler (Dean and President from 1993 – 2010 and President until 2014). More recently, the tenures of Nick Allard (2012 – 18) and Michael Cahill (2019 – present) brought fresh thinking, enhanced the scholarly stature and diversity of the faculty, led programmatic initiatives, and furthered the professionalization of administrative support functions.

Miriam Baer began her appointment as the Vice Dean in summer 2022. She is also Centennial Professor of Law. During the 2021-22 academic year, she was a Visiting Fellow at Harvard University’s Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, where she worked on her forthcoming book, Myths and Misunderstandings of White-Collar Crime (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming). Dean Baer writes and teaches at the intersection of business and criminal law. She is an elected member of the American Law Institute, where she served as an Adviser on the ALI’s Principles of the Law of Compliance, Enforcement and Risk Management. Before academia, Dean Baer served as an assistant general counsel for compliance with Verizon and was also an Assistant U.S. Attorney in the Criminal Division of the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York. Baer is often quoted by major media outlets on issues of federal and white-collar crime. She has published widely, including in the Columbia Law Review, Virginia Law Review, Texas Law Review, Michigan Law Review, Minnesota Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal Forum. She is also a co-editor of a leading white-collar crime casebook and has had her work featured and cited by several federal appellate courts. She earned her AB at Princeton and her JD at Harvard Law School.

Stacy Caplow, the Associate Dean for Experiential Education, has led and developed the Law School’s clinical programs, externship offerings, and simulation classes for more than 30 years. She teaches Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure: Adjudication, and Immigration Law, as well as the Safe Harbor Project and the Clemency and Pardon Project clinics. Her writings relate to immigration law, clinical teaching, and criminal law. Having served in key positions in the clinical section of the AALS and as President of the Clinical Legal Education Association, she has spent time in Hong Kong, Ireland (as a Fulbright Scholar), Armenia, and Georgia in connection with projects to develop clinical education in law schools in those countries. She joined the BLS faculty in 1976, taking several leaves of absence to work in the Office of the Kings County District Attorney and the Office of the U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of New York. She earned her BA from Smith College and a JD and LLM from New York University School of Law.

Professor Michael Gerber, the Associate Dean for Finance and Administration, joined the Brooklyn Law School faculty in 1984 and has served the Law School in several capacities, including as Associate Dean for Development and as Interim Dean from 2010 to 2012. He teaches Bankruptcy, Corporate Restructuring, and Contracts and directs Brooklyn Law School’s innovative Business Boot Camp. He is the author of a leading Business Reorganizations casebook and a contributing author to the Collier on Bankruptcy treatise. He earned his BA and JD from New York University.

Eulas Boyd is Dean of Admissions and Financial Aid. A graduate of Cornell University and Harvard Law School, he practiced commercial litigation in New York for nine years before transitioning to careers in workforce planning, talent acquisition, and law school admissions. Dean Boyd combines experience in corporate environments, financial institutions, non-profits, and law schools to inform his perspective on law school admissions, legal education, and the legal profession. He joined Brooklyn Law School in 2015, having previously worked in admissions at Columbia Law School.

Annie Nienaber is the Law School’s Chief Advancement Officer. Before her appointment at the Law School, she served as Director of Development and Assistant Dean at Rutgers University School of Engineering, where she launched giving initiatives that led to $15 million in new gift commitments and a $10 million endowed scholarship commitment, the largest single gift ever to Rutgers Engineering and, at the time, the largest scholarship gift ever to Rutgers University. Before joining Rutgers, she served for five years in various development roles at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She earned an MA and BA in English Literature from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Karen Eisen has served as Dean of Career and Professional Development since 2013. Dean Eisen spent her legal career as an Assistant District Attorney in the New York County District Attorney’s Office. After 14 years as an ADA, she transitioned to legal recruiting and attorney development in 2001, initially focusing on recruiting and mentoring paralegals, attorneys, and partners at AmLaw 100 firms in New York and New Jersey. At Brooklyn Law School, she leads the Career Development Center team in designing and implementing counseling and programming for students and alumni. She earned her BA from SUNY Binghamton and her JD from the University of Florida.

Stephanie Vullo serves as the Law School’s General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer, and Board Secretary. She formerly served as Assistant Vice President, Executive Legal Counsel and Labor Designee at Baruch College and as Assistant General Counsel of New York University. She is a graduate of Cornell University and the Elizabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University.

Academic and Co-curricular Programs

Brooklyn Law School offers more than 200 courses in a broad range of subjects, allowing students to pursue any field of interest to them. The curriculum takes a rigorous, academic approach that blends doctrinal and experiential instruction. The goal is to equip students with the knowledge and critical-thinking skills that will be required of them as successful practicing lawyers. Abundant co-curricular programming complements formal coursework and clinics.

  • Legal Writing Program
    Brooklyn Law School’s field-leading Legal Writing Program provides students with essential writing, research, and advocacy skills that make them practice ready upon graduation.
  • Clinical Program
    Brooklyn Law School’s clinical program, a pioneer in experiential education, has long been regarded as one of the finest and most comprehensive. The program offers students invaluable opportunities to work with real clients on actual cases. Clinics and externships extend the campus to hundreds of state and federal courthouses, government agencies, law offices, and businesses throughout New York City.
  • Sparer Public Interest Law Fellowship
    The Edward V. Sparer Public Interest Law Fellowship Program offers highly qualified students opportunities to explore the practice of public interest law. Sparer Fellows are inspired by the program to work for justice, to provide legal services to under-represented constituencies, and to foster the Law School’s strong public interest community.
  • Moot Court Honor Society
    Brooklyn Law School is home to one of the most distinguished and accomplished moot court programs in the country, and annually hosts the prestigious Prince Evidence Competition.
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution Honor Society
    The Alternative Dispute Resolution Honor Society is Brooklyn Law School’s accredited honors organization that prepares students for success in this growing field of legal practice.
  • International Opportunities
    Brooklyn Law School offers exciting opportunities for students to take their legal studies abroad and experience the law from an entirely different perspective, through semester- long exchange programs with partnering universities, summer abroad programs, and international fellowships.
  • Degree Options
    Prospective students can choose from a variety of flexible options, including 3-, 3.5-, 4-, or 4.5-year JD programs. In partnership with several schools in Europe and Asia, Brooklyn Law School also offers a joint JD and LL.M degree for Brooklyn Law School students interested in international law and giving students the opportunity to spend two semesters abroad. Brooklyn Law School also offers several joint domestic degrees, and for lawyers trained outside the U. S., a growing LL.M degree program. Two new Master of Legal Studies programs—one in Financial Technology and Regulation, the other in Sustainability, Future Cities, and the Law—are currently under review for regulatory approval.
  • Academic Success
    This program assists students as they initially encounter the rigors of law school and fosters an atmosphere in which students can excel in the classroom and gain readiness for final exams and bar passage.

Centers and Journals

Brooklyn Law School continues to advance its reputation as a leader in legal education through various faculty-led centers, including:

  • Block Center for International Business Law
    The mission of the Dennis J. Block Center for the Study of International Business Law is to study and shape international business law and policy, and it hosts a rich variety of programs to address issues of concern to the global financial markets.
  • Center for Criminal Justice
    The Center for Criminal Justice was launched by Brooklyn Law School in 2016 and places the Law School at the center of critical conversations, education, and sharing of expertise on the most vital issues and topics in criminal justice law and policy today.
  • Center for Health, Science & Public Policy
    Building upon New York City’s world-class science and healthcare communities, the Center has forged a dynamic environment for outstanding legal education, policy innovation, and scholarship. It provides students with the substantive knowledge and practical skills necessary to become excellent lawyers in these rapidly growing fields.
  • Center for Law, Language & Cognition
    The Center for Law, Language & Cognition is devoted to exploring how developments in the cognitive sciences—including psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics—have dramatic implications for the law at both theoretical and practical levels. It is the pioneer academic center in this space.
  • Center for the Study of Business Law & Regulation
    The Center for the Study of Business Law & Regulation unites the Law School’s existing diverse business and commercial law programs by providing a forum for scholarship that offers new perspectives on, and solutions to, real world business law and regulatory issues.
  • CUBE: Center for Urban Business Entrepreneurship
    The Center for Urban Business Entrepreneurship, or CUBE, takes advantage of Brooklyn Law School’s location as a hub for exploring legal issues surrounding entrepreneurship, and for providing effective legal representation and support for new businesses while also training the next generation of business lawyers.
  • Public Service Law Center
    The Public Service Law Center serves as a hub of resources and information related to public service programs, initiatives, and activities. The center advances the Law School’s dynamic tradition of service, offering myriad ways to engage in public service.
  • Law Journals
    The Law School publishes four student-edited law journals: the Brooklyn Law Review, Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial and Commercial Law, Brooklyn Journal of International Law, and Journal of Law and Policy. These scholarly publications contribute to the intellectual backbone of the nation’s legal profession and are widely read by jurists, practitioners, and scholars.

The Campus

Over 121 years of real estate acquisition and development, Brooklyn Law School has succeeded in creating a true urban campus in the heart of Brooklyn. The Law School’s current main building at 250 Joralemon Street began as purpose-built new construction in 1968. Critics received its 1994 addition by architect Robert A. M. Stern as perhaps the finest post-war new building in the Borough. Herbert Muschamp remarked in The New York Times: “Within are sumptuous rooms, paneled in warm cherry wood and tawny maple: libraries, reading rooms, classrooms, and offices, including some double-height spaces fitted with balconies. On the ceilings, a thousand coffers bloom; chandeliers glow over reading carrels carved into voluptuous volutes. Floors of the new building are joined almost seamlessly to the old – the school’s floor space has nearly doubled – and the tower is also deftly spliced into Brooklyn’s civic center cityscape. Front windows and an outdoor terrace adjacent to the cafeteria frame views of a recently landscaped park bordering Borough Hall: a pleasing illusion of a campus quadrangle.”

A second Robert A. M. Stern commission, the state-of-the-art 21-story Feil Hall (2005), allows Brooklyn Law School to guarantee housing to virtually all first-year students, fostering a strong sense of campus community. This 360-bed residence hall caters to the particular needs of law students, many of whom are returning to school after other careers. The building’s 239 units are laid out as small apartments, with the Dean and President residing in style on the seventeenth floor and communal amenities on the ground and top floors. Feil’s classical detailing visually connects it to Stern’s 1994 Law School addition two blocks away, but its red brick expression makes it clearly part of the neighborhood that the Law School’s students can now call home.

With the original building at 250 Joralemon Street now more than 50 years old, and the academic and administrative needs of Brooklyn Law School outgrowing existing campus space, the Law School will soon make an in-depth assessment of all its facilities as part of a wide-ranging strategic planning process.

Opportunities and Priorities for The New Dean and President

Brooklyn Law School will ask its new Dean and President to:

  • Provide vision in initiating comprehensive strategic planning, including an in-depth assessment of all the Law School’s facilities.
  • Leverage a newly expanded and restructured advancement team to increase annual fundraising and plan and execute a capital campaign in celebration of Brooklyn Law School’s 125th anniversary in 2026.
  • Recruit and appoint a new Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer and other senior administrators to upgrade administrative infrastructure and improve internal institutional communication.
  • Grow and sustain the faculty by attracting scholars and teachers of distinction and promise and retaining accomplished recently appointed and mid-career faculty members in demand by other law schools.
  • Assess and recalibrate hybrid instruction and administrative operations instituted during the COVID pandemic.
  • Oversee the rollout of non-JD programs now awaiting regulatory approval and engage the faculty in developing other programmatic offerings to diversify and enhance tuition revenue streams.
  • Guide and amplify ongoing efforts to restore bar passage rates to Brooklyn Law School’s historic highs and top ranking in New York.
  • Enhance the educational experience and professional formation of all matriculating students and improve related outcomes, including job placement and career satisfaction.
  • Promote staff wellbeing and alumni engagement.

The Ideal Candidate

Brooklyn Law School seeks as its new Dean and President a prominent leader in the legal academy. Candidates must possess a JD, at least seven years of experience in the teaching of law and the readiness to succeed not only as a law school dean but as president of an independent private institution with a prime location in the nation’s top market for legal services.

Candidates must meet Brooklyn Law School’s criteria for tenure at the full professor rank and embrace its commitment to scholarly excellence, a practice orientation, and an access mission. Fluency in budgeting and finance is essential. Candidates should demonstrate the ability to build Brooklyn Law School’s capacity to serve a diverse student population and to lead ongoing efforts for further faculty and staff diversification. Candidates should have fundraising aptitude and ideas for cultivating high student and alumni institutional affinity.

Procedure for Candidacy

Search committee review of candidate materials will begin immediately and continue until the appointment, with an initial ranking of the pool commencing on October 24. A complete application will include a letter of interest, a curriculum vitae, and contact information for five professional references who can speak about the candidate’s qualifications for this appointment. Named references will not be contacted without the candidate’s prior consent. Brooklyn Law School encourages applications from candidates whose leadership and personal experience will enrich the diversity of faculty and staff.

Expressions of interest, applications, nominations, and inquiries should be directed to Brooklyn Law School’s search consultant, Mr. Chuck O’Boyle of C. V. O’Boyle, Jr., LLC, at

Search Committee

Eileen T. Nugent ’78, of counsel at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, and a member of the Law School’s Board of Trustees, will chair the Search Committee.

Board of Trustees Chair Frank Aquila ’83 will participate in the search process as an ex-officio member of the committee.

Joining Nugent and Aquila, will be the following fellow alumni and members of the Board of Trustees, as well as distinguished faculty members:

William D. Araiza, Stanley A. August Professor of Law
Christopher Beauchamp, Professor of Law
Alexis J. Hoag-Fordjour, Assistant Professor of Law and Co-Director of the Center for Criminal Justice
Melique Jones ’98, chief people officer at Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and Board of Trustee member
Sasha L. Linney ’11, associate general counsel at Golden Tree Asset Management and Board of Trustee member
John Oswald ’84, president and CEO of Capital Trust Group and Board of Trustee member
David Reiss, Professor of Law and Research Director, Center for Urban Business Entrepreneurship (CUBE)
Hon. Ramon E. Reyes Jr. ’92, U.S. magistrate judge, U.S. district judge nominee of the Eastern District of New York, and Board of Trustee member
Alice Ristroph, Professor of Law
Steven G. Scheinfeld ’85, global chair of the corporate department at Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson and Board of Trustee member
Danielle Tully, Associate Professor of Legal Writing

The Search Committee welcomes nominations and other recommendations for its consideration and those should be directed to Chuck O'Boyle at

Once the Search Committee has selected the finalists, it will offer members of the Brooklyn Law School community an opportunity to meet the candidates and provide input.

It is the policy of Brooklyn Law School not to discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, marital status, genetic information, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected status under federal, state, or local law. It is also the policy of Brooklyn Law School to take affirmative action to employ, and to advance in employment, all persons regardless of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, marital status, genetic information, disability, veteran status, sexual orientation, or any other legally protected status, and to base all employment decisions on legitimate job requirements. This policy shall apply to all employment actions, including but not limited to recruitment, hiring, upgrading, promotion, transfer, demotion, layoff, recall, termination, rates of pay or other forms of compensation, and selection for training, including apprenticeship, at all levels of employment.